Sunday, 5 June 2016

Psychology notes: Motivation theories - drive theory

Psychology uses a number of theories to explain a concept or term. Same is for “motivation”

Why do you write civil service again and again? What motivates Leander Paes or Dhoni  to practice  before each match? What motivated a rich man’s son to shed his weight?
The theories as single or mostly as a bundle can be used to explain motivation. The earliest of the theories is Drive Theory. In common parlance motivation is often called as drive too. What drives you to do it? Is common way of asking What motivated you?.

The drive theory is used to explain behaviors like drinking water or eating food. The basic biological needs pushes a person to do a behavior to reduce the need.

Biological need - > drive - > bahaviour -> reduces drive - > need satisfied  (for that time to re-occur later).
The drive is closely related to homeostasis. The drive leads to behavior for human body to reach homeostasis. Homeostasis is a concept in physiology which tells that body functions maintain the cells or body in normal range. Once the homeostasis is disturbed ( hunger/thirst) the body balance changes. This creates a drive for the human being to act in manner to maintain this homeostasis.

The theory which was initially used to explain eating or drinking was later extended to other behavioral patterns. But the extent to which it can explain all types of motivation is questionable.

Eg: Person may read erotic material to increase sexual excitement even though sexual activity may not be anticipated. Here the behavior increase drive.

This and many other behavior shows that drive theory is insufficient to explain “motivation”.

.. to be continued!

Keywords: biological need, homeostasis


Motivation: Internal processes that activate, guide and maintain behaviour over time (source: Robert A Baron) 

Friday, 12 February 2016

How much does an IAS officer earn initially as salary?

The IAS officer joins as a probationer. He is in PB3 15600-39100 + GP 5400.

He salary would be around 40,500=(pay15600 +GP5400 +18900+600).

During probation: Of this around 10,000 would be mess bill. A percentage would be retained to be paid by state later.

 In short: He would get around 20,000 in hand.If the probationer

A number of questions in quora and in wiki's which clearly explain this. There are many aspirants who does a guesstimation of salary. Just calculate the Pay+Gradepay+allowance+DA) and its the salary of any job.

Monday, 9 November 2015

Real 4G vs 4G vs LTE

What is 4G? Difference “real 4G”and “4G”?

The ITU (International telecom unions) had mentioned certain specifications for 4G. The connections that meet these requirements are known as “real 4G”. There are lot of companies which advertise as 4G, which may not meet these requirements but are known as 4G.

Read about the 4G specifications (Click here)

How to find if the connection is “real 4G”or 4G?

Running speed test and comparing with the specifications. It can be noted that the disclaimer of most companies would have fine prints that cover the legal hassles  if some one complaints that he/she isn’t getting “real 4G”.

What is 3.9 G?

The improvements in 3G, which are better but doesn’t meet the 4G requirements, are known as 3.9 G.

What is LTE?

LTE stands for long term evolution. It didn’t meet the original requirements of 4G, but since it was a significant improvement over the 3G, it is regarded as 4G.

Saturday, 24 October 2015

Science and Tech - Hydroponics


The plants depend on soil for nutrients. In hydroponics the plants get the nutrients without being planted in soil. It is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions without soil. Hydroponics has several branches like aeroponics, aquaponics etc.

Monday, 7 September 2015

Topper's blog for UPSC preparation

Yet another Indian who doesn't want to end up as yet another Indian, Umesh N S K, has detailed his study strategy in the blog Tour De Force. It is well written take on the current trends in UPSC. For students of Political Science, it is a good read.

Monday, 22 June 2015

IAS Probationers meeting Honorable President of India

The IAS probationers do a eight week Bharat Darshan ( visit to different parts of India),At the end the probationers call on the Honorable President of India. A video release of the same:

Visit :

Interview 2014 IAS TOPPER

Interview in Hindi with Gaurav IAS Topper 2014

 Interview Topper IAS

Youtube link : Click on picture or visit :

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