Thursday, 5 March 2015


Vanaj 2015

The first tribal festival in India conducted at New Delhi.
It was conducted by Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
Show cases : Cuture , food , folk lore and other aspects of tribal life.


What is it? It is a software
Use? : For computerization of land records
How? It is used for plotting survey maps.
It can handle variety of survey systems


Expansion : National Electoral Roll Purification and Authentication Programme (NERPAP)

What is new ? Linking of electoral database to Aadhar data.
How implemented? Using mobile, sms, webservices, offline submission etc aadhar number can be submitted. EPIC and aadhar database will be used to clearing the fake cards.

Wednesday, 11 February 2015

NITI aayog (National Institution for Transforming India)

NITI aayog (National Institution for Transforming India)

All of you would have known the replacement of Planning commission with NITI aayog. The new institution comes with following objectives.

    1. To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities, sectors and strategies with the active involvement of States in the light of national objectives.    The vision of the NITI Aayog will then provide a framework ‘national agenda’ for the Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers to provide impetus to.

    1. To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation.

    1. To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government.

    1. To ensure, on areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy.

    1. To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefitting adequately from economic progress. 

    1. To design strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and their efficacy.  The lessons learnt through monitoring and feedback will be used for making innovative improvements, including necessary mid-course corrections.

    1. To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think Tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions.

    1. To create a knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners and other partners.

    1. To offer a platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter-departmental issues in order to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda.

    1. To maintain a state-of-the-art Resource Centre, be a repository of research on good governance and best practices in sustainable and equitable development as well as help their dissemination to stake-holders.

    1. To actively monitor and evaluate the implementation of programmes and initiatives, including the identification of the needed resources so as to strengthen the probability of success and scope of delivery.

    1. To focus on technology upgradation and capacity building for implementation of programmes and initiatives.

    1. To undertake other activities as may be necessary in order to further the execution of the national development agenda, and the objectives mentioned above.

Why cooperative federalism? WIKI page read

One scheme implemented in a state may not be of significance to another state. India is a country with diversity, the one size fits all would not work in for all states. The need to frame programs that suit regional demands is core of cooperative federalism.
Eg: Jan Dhan Yojana may be of not much relevance in Kerala.

What is entrepreneur ecosystem?


Wednesday, 10 December 2014

Book Review: Psychology by Robert A Baron

One of the most read books by psychology students is Psychology – Robert A Baron”. It should not be confused with Social Psychology by the same author.

The book definitely is a wonderful one which explains the concepts in psychology in a lucid fashion. The writing style is such that the reader won’t feel the pages being flipped away.

I would concentrate on the utility of the book with regard to Psychology optional examination by UPSC. There are few things to keep in mind in case you have chosen this as a primary book for psychology.

Firstly, Its fun to read this book. But don’t miss the concepts which we may miss while reading leisurely. This is a book with lot of icing along with cake. Don’t just have the icing and miss the cake.

Secondly, Its not for all kind of learners. Some aspirants like just the points to be given. There are some who like to read book with seriousness. Then this may not be their book.

Thirdly, You may need to supplement certain areas with reading from other books. Morgan and King’s Psychology book is a popular choice to fill the weaker areas in this book.

Fourthly, In some areas, the concepts are crowded in a small area. eg: Shaping, Chaining etc are in close paras in operant conditioning. Don't confuse the importance of topic with font size in Baron's Psychology!

This book is a good one for civils exam, but do keep in mind its limitations too. 

Tuesday, 9 December 2014

India’s shale gas policy

What is shale gas?

Shale is a sedimentary stone formation. In the shale formations, natural gas is trapped which is known as shale gas.

Why suddenly shale gas is in picture?

Countries especially US has developed technology (horizontal drilling+hydraulic fracturing) which has made extraction of shale gas viable. It has made US gas importing country into gas exporting country.

Geo-politics (get more info from net)

  • The OPEC countries have been riding high with their control over energy sources. This is challenged. 
  • Power equations between nations change with new energy production
  • Natural gas is safer, so the shale gas production has role in climate change.

Challenges for Shale gas production
  • Technology – A viable business model and technology is needed to develop these fields
  • As the OPEC nations aren’t lowering production of oil, the oil prices have lowered. This makes it    challenging, as the shale gas production price would go up J
  • Fear of environmental hazards. The technology of fracking uses water jets to open up spaces having gas. This requires tonnes of water – water scarcity. It is feared it would cause water contamination too.

Shale gas in India

In India, ONGC and OIL have been asked to carry out explorations for shale gas production. In first phase only govt run companies have permission to explore in their blocks. In the  next phase other companies would come in to participate.

India’s potential areas -  Cambay (in Gujarat), Assam-Arakan (in the North-

East), Gondawana (in central India), KG onshore (in Andhra Pradesh), Cauvery 

onshore and Indo-Gangetic basins  [six basins]

200 words

  • Write about the recent trends in world energy production?
  • Role of shale gas in Indian/world economy (or) geo-politics
  • Discuss the prospects and problems of Shale gas use in India.

50 words:

Fracking - Drilling down into the earth. Then a jet of water,chemicals,sand is injected at high pressure to enable the gas to flow out of head of well.(first pic in this article)

Friday, 5 December 2014

Geo-political significance of Indian Ocean

Geo-political significance of Indian Ocean

The Indian ocean has been important in geopolitical aspect of world from early times. The discovery of the sea route in Indian ocean and subsequent trade as well as colonization has changed the world. The imperialism, spread/change of trade/agriculture etc  has occurred from times immemorial due to the routes in Indian ocean.

In modern times, the significance of Indian ocean has increased many fold.
First, Geological location – (put a small sketch here showing Indian ocean region). The IO serves not only bigger nations like India, China but also littoral states. The land locked countries like Bhutan also depend on Indian ocean for their day to day activities.
Trade-(Put small sketch for trade routes – mallacca / Suez Canal) large volumes of trade in Oil/steel/textiles/pharmaceuticals etc occur from Asia to West and East through the Indian Ocean. The trade has been increasing as the nations like India are rapidly progressing. This makes IOR very important.

Resource- Many areas in Indian Ocean are rich in minerals/oils etc. The mining of these natural resources will change the future of the nation which does it. As a result the technology/political power in this region is of importance.

Terrorism- the IOR is important in the security point of view. The Mumbai attacks has reminded us of the cost for neglecting IOR security. Now India has strengthened its coast guard and navy to meet needs of IOR.

Illegal trade – the illegal trade/narcotics etc has IOR as play ground. The golden crescent/ golden triangle are adjacent to the IOR.

The attempt of nations like US to continue the presence through Diego Garcia ( command over sea ) indicates the significance of IOR.

The rising ocean pollution (put few eg’s) need the cooperation of all nations. In such a situation the IOR and laws governing the disposal of wastes including nuclear waste in ocean assumes large geopolitical significance.

Thus Indian Ocean region has high geopolitical significance in today’s situation due to trade, location, assertion of marine control by world powers, security and environmental reasons.

The above question can be put in words like
Q: Why is Indian ocean called modern maritime silk route?
Q: What is relevance of Indian ocean with regard to China/India?

PS: Add small sketches especially in geo-optionals.

Thursday, 4 December 2014

Orion spacecraft SAFAR


It is a space craft built by NASA aiming to carry humans beyond moon. The mars is a probable destination for the next human landing.

System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR)

Due to the high level of pollution which is rapidly rising in India day by day., we need a constant monitoring system.

Who developed?

What is use?
Used for almost real time testing of air quality and forecast. It is complemented by weather forecasting system.

Friday, 28 November 2014



It is a comet on which recently lander 'philae' investigated. The philae is part of rosette mission by european space agency. The rosetta mission is aimed at investigating the comet nucleus. The comet is also known as 67P

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